200BC - Today
The city state of Djenné was settled over 2,200 years ago, but still exists today in modern Mali. The current city, formed around a thousand years ago, is a few kilometers away from the original site and can technically count as a separate entity. Still, the original city, called Djenné-Jéno or Djoboro, was active from 200 BC until the 15th century. Djenné was a major trade hub in ancient Mali, providing gold, slaves, ivory, civet (a perfume fragrance) and gum. The city of Timbuktu, synonymous with trading in that part of the world, was only settled long after Djenné had faded from glory.